I’ve been pondering where video fits today in primary schooling.
We seem to go around in circles on this question. Over the years, I’ve been teaching Year 4 students to work with green screens, voice overs, cut-aways… in iMovie. They love creating video this way, but it does take time so is saved for our TV Advertising Unit where we can look at advertising techniques in depth – including those used in post-production work. Students had to have access to computer labs and sit at the same computer. With more ready access to technology is this still the way to go?
With the advent of iPads and more readily available mobile technologies I often hear “the best camera is the one you have”. Its now so easy for students of all ages to quickly capture their experiences, reflections and ideas and add titles and annotations using apps like iMovie, Explain Everything or ShowMe. These one-shot videos are turning out to be very useful for formative and summative assessment tasks, essential agreements, creating tutorials and using for school communication/podcasts.
Filming on an iPhone or iPad
Can you mix footage? Thanks to Steve Griffiths, I recently learned that Australia uses 25 frames per second (fps) for filming based on the 50 hz speed of our electricity. America and some countries like Japan use 29.97 fps based on 50hz (I initially found this out about 50hz electricity when I moved to Australia and found none of my clock-based appliances worked because of the slower clock speed!). Steve mentioned feature films are shot at 24 fps . “An interesting note is that when you watch a feature film on Australian TV it is actually 4% shorter than when you saw it at the cinema. Films are ‘sped up’ from 24 fps to 25 fps to match the TV frame rate and therefore run slightly faster.”
It turns out the iPhone and iPad are so smart they decide the frame rate for you based on light conditions. This can be problematic if you want to incorporate with other footage. Steve’s general rule, “Don’t mix the frame rate”. So iPhones and iPads are good if its all you have, but may not mix with film from other cameras.
Portrait Footage and ePubs?
It used to be a strict “no no” to film in portrait orientation rather than landscape. Well it turns out you’re better off holding the camera/phone etc.. vertical when capturing footage to include in ePubs!
Now that the cost of producing high quality video productions is so much accessible, there is a place for high end productions in a school setting. This weekend I learned professional techniques for creating high-end videos on a budget. Here are a few of the tips shared at an ADE Retreat hosted by Apple with guest expert Steve Griffiths.
Tips for Great Shots
- follow the rule of thirds
- don’t fireHOSE by panning, tilting or zooming. Choose the frame, then shoot the scene for at least 7 seconds.
- keep the camera level to the horizon
- avoid zoom: use zoom to frame, but don’t use transitional zoom
- shoot landscape unless its for an ePub/iBook
- handhelds can appear less staged and captures the moment. Use a tripod where possible.
- give shots depth with a clear foreground, mid ground and background (put as much distance behind the subject as possible).
- make sure the focus is spot on
- watch colour balance and white balance
- everything that is said in an interview needs to have a picture to go with it. Use LOTS of overlay. You can never get enough overlay. These don’t need audio and can be in the class room, close shots of technology,…
- Look for different ways to shoot things (low, high)
- Avoid reflections
- Keep the camera steady
- keep things looking nice (tidy up, clean screens..)
- lighting makes people look better. Need three light sources: keylight to light the subject, fill on the opposite side to fill shadows and backlight around the hairline. Outside use the sun and a piece of white card as fill light.
- If subject is squinting, tell them to close their eyes and look at the sun, then turn to you and open them.
- Sound needs to be good quality. Test, use external mics and CHECK. Lapel mics are best.
Tips for Interviewing
- Keep the eyeline slight to left or right of camera, looking at interviewer
- Make sure you can clearly see both eyes
- Dark clothing ususally looks better
- Avoid fine stripes (moire effect)
- Avoid swivel chairs
- Sit on coat tails
- Move scenery to a create a good shot
- Eyes on interviewer only (looks shifty otherwise) Keep other people out of eyeline.
- Look for reflections, headroom, brightness and background.
- We learned to use Final Cut X. Easy to use and more powerful than iMovie.
- Allow plenty of time. Approx 4 hours per minute of final footage.
- Music adds emotion – create your own if you can.
- Add plenty of overlay.
- When publishing compress (Compressor does a great job).